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孙亨锡:2012年考研英语二真题

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孙亨锡:2012年考研英语二真题

  2012年考研英语二真题。Section I USE of English

  Directions :Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)

  Millions of Americans and foreigners see GI.Joe as a mindless war toy ,the symbol of American military adventurism, but that’s not how it used to be .To the men and women who 1 in World War II and the people they liberated ,the GI.was the 2 man grown into hero ,the pool farm kid torn away from his home ,the guy who 3 all the burdens of battle ,who slept in cold foxholes,who went without the 4 of food and shelter ,who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of murder .this was not a volunteer soldier ,not someone well paid , 5 an average guy ,up 6 the best trained ,best equipped ,fiercest ,most brutal enemies seen in centuries.

  His name is not much.GI. is just a military abbreviation7 Government Issue ,and it was on all of the article 8 to soldiers .And Joe? A common name for a guy who never 9 it to the top .Joe Blow ,Joe Magrac …a working class name.The United States has 10 had a president or vicepresident or secretary of state Joe.

  GI .joe had a11 career fighting German ,Japanese , and Korean troops . He appers as a character ,or a 12 of american personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story of GI. Joe, based on the last days of war correspondent Ernie Pyle. Some of the soldiers Pyle 13 portrayde themselves in the film. Pyle was famous for covering the 14 side of the warl, writing about the dirt-snow –and-mud soldiers, not how many miles were 15 or what towns were captured or liberated, His reports 16 the “willie” cartoons of famed Stars and Stripes artist Bill Maulden. Both men 17 the dirt and exhaustion of war, the 18 of civilization that the soldiers shared with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco, whiskey, shelter, sleep. 19 Egypt, France, and a dozen more countries, G.I. Joe was any American soldier, 20 the most important person in their lives.

  1. [A] performed [B]served [C]rebelled [D]betrayed

  2. [A] actual [B]common [C]special [D]normal

  3. [A]bore [B]cased [C]removed [D]loaded

  4. [A]necessities [B]facilitice [C]commodities [D]propertoes

  5. [A]and [B]nor [C]but [D]hence

  6. [A]for [B]into [C] form [D]against

  7. [A]meaning [B]implying [C]symbolizing [D]claiming

  8. [A]handed out [B]turn over [C]brought back [D]passed down

  9. [A]pushed [B]got [C]made [D]managed

  10. [A]ever [B]never [C]either [D]neither

  11. [A]disguised [B]disturbed [C]disputed [D]distinguished

  12. [A]company [B]collection [C]community [D]colony

  13. [A]employed [B]appointed [C]interviewed [D]questioned

  14. [A]ethical [B]military [C]political [D]human

  15. [A]ruined [B]commuted [C]patrolled [D]gained

  16. [A]paralleled [B]counteracted [C]duplicated [D]contradicted

  17. [A]neglected [B]avoided [C]emphasized [D]admired

  18. [A]stages [B]illusions [C]fragments [D]advancea

  19. [A]With [B]To [C]Among [D]Beyond

  20. [A]on the contrary [B] by this means [C]from the outset [D]at that point

  Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension

  Part A

  Directions: Read the following four texts. answer the question after each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)

  Text 1

  Homework has never been terribly popular with students and even many parents, but in recent years it has been particularly scorned. School districts across the country, most recently Los Angeles Unified, are revising their thinking on his educational ritual. Unfortunately, L.A. Unified has produced an inflexible policy which mandates that with the exception of some advanced courses, homework may no longer count for more than 10% of a student’s academic grade.

  This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework. But the policy is unclear and contradictory. Certainly, no homework should be assigned that students cannot do without expensive equipment. But if the district is essentially giving a pass to students who do not do their homework because of complicated family lives, it is going riskily close to the implication that standards need to be lowered for poor children.

  District administrators say that homework will still be a pat of schooling: teachers are allowed to assign as much of it as they want. But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework and see vey little difference on their report cards. Some students might do well on state tests without completing their homework, but what about the students who performed well on the tests and did their homework? It is quite possible that the homework helped. Yet rather than empowering teachers to find what works best for their students, the policy imposes a flat, across-the-board rule.

  At the same time, the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework. If the district finds homework to be unimportant to its students’ academic achievement, it should move to reduce or eliminate the assignments, not make them count for almost nothing. Conversely, if homework does nothing to ensure that the homework students are not assigning more than they are willing to review and correct.

  The homework rules should be put on hold while the school board, which is responsible for setting educational policy, looks into the matter and conducts public hearings. It is not too late for L.A. Unified to do homework right.

  21. It is implied in paragraph 1 that nowadays homework_____.

  [A] is receiving more criticism

  [B]is no longer an educational ritual

  [C]is not required for advanced courses

  [D]is gaining more preferences

  22. L.A.Unified has made the rule about homework mainly because poor students_____.

  [A]tend to have moderate expectations for their education

  [B]have asked for a different educational standard

  [C]may have problems finishing their homework

  [D]have voiced their complaints about homework

  23. According to Paragraph 3,one problem with the policy is that it may____.

  [A]discourage students from doing homework

  [B]result in students' indifference to their report cards

  [C]undermine the authority of state tests

  [D]restrict teachers' power in education

  24. As mentioned in Paragraph 4, a key question unanswered about homework is whether______. [A] it should be eliminated

  [B]it counts much in schooling

  [C]it places extra burdens on teachers

  [D]it is important for grades

  25. A suitable title for this text could be______.

  [A]Wrong Interpretation of an Educational Policy

  [B]A Welcomed Policy for Poor Students

  [C]Thorny Questions about Homework

  [D]A Faulty Approach to Homework

  Text2

  Pretty in pink: adult women do not rememer being so obsessed with the colour, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. Tt is not that pink is intrinsically bad, but it is such a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fuses girls’ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, I despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests.

  Girls’ attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it is not. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th century: in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What’s more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses.When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolised femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children’s marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem inherently attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years.

  I had not realised how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kins, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children’s behaviour: wrong. Turns out, acdording to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularised as a marketing trick by clothing manufacrurers in the 1930s.

  Trade publications counselled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a “third stepping stone” between infant wear and older kids’ clothes. Tt was only after “toddler”became a common shoppers’ term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults,into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences – or invent them where they did not previously exist.

  26. By saying "it is...the rainbow"(Line 3, Para.1),the author means pink______.

  [A]should not be the sole representation of girlhood

  [B]should not be associated with girls' innocence

  [C]cannot explain girls' lack of imagination

  [D]cannot influence girls' lives and interests

  27.According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours?

  [A]Colours are encoded in girls' DNA.

  [B]Blue used to be regarded as the colour for girls.

  [C]Pink used to be a neutral colour in symbolising genders.

  [D]White is prefered by babies.

  28. The author suggests that our perception of children's psychological development was much influenced by_____.

  [A]the marketing of products for children

  [B]the observation of children's nature

  [C]researches into children's behavior

  [D]studies of childhood consumption

  29. We may learn from Paragraph 4 that department stores were advised to_____.

  [A]focus on infant wear and older kids' clothes

  [B]attach equal importance to different genders

  [C]classify consumers into smaller groups

  [D]create some common shoppers' terms

  30. It can be concluded that girls' attraction to pink seems to be____.

  [A] clearly explained by their inborn tendency

  [B]fully understood by clothing manufacturers

  [C] mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen

  [D]well interpreted by psychological experts

  Text 3

  In 2010. a federal judge shook America's biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated DNA for decades-by 2005 some 20% of human genes were parented. But in March 2010 a judge ruled that genes were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a trade group, assured members that this was just a “preliminary step” in a longer battle.

  On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Myriad Genetics could indeed holb patents to two genss that help forecast a woman's risk of breast cancer. The chief executive of Myriad, a company in Utah,said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike.

  But as companies continue their attempts at personalised medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents' monopolies restrict access to genetic tests such as Myriad's. A growing number seem to agree.Last year a federal task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule “is no less a product of nature... than are cotton fibres that have been separated from cotton seeds. ”

  Despite the appeals court's decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of indivi dual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court.

  AS the industry advances ,however,other suits may have an even greater impact.companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules-most are already patented or in the public domain .firms are now studying how genes intcract,looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy,companies are eager to win patents for ‘connecting the dits’,expaains hans sauer,alawyer for the BIO.

  Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO rtcently held a convention which included seddions to coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed.

  31. it canbe learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies would like-----

  A. their executives to be active

  B. judges to rule out gene patenting

  C. genes to be patcntablc

  D. the BIO to issue a warning

  32. those who are against gene patents believe that----

  A. genetic tests are not reliable

  B. only man-made products are patentable

  C. patents on genes depend much on innovatiaon

  D. courts should restrict access to gene tic tests

  33. according to hans sauer ,companies are eager to win patents for----

  A. establishing disease comelations

  B. discovering gene interactions

  C. drawing pictures of genes

  D. identifying human DNA

  34.By saying “each meeting was packed”(line4,para6)the author means that -----

  A. the supreme court was authoritative

  B. the BIO was a powerful organization

  C. gene patenting was a great concern

  D. lawyers were keen to attend conventiongs

  35. generally speaking ,the author’s attitude toward gene patenting is----

  A. critical

  B. supportive

  C. scornful

  D. Objective

  Text 4

  The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends, it will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics, our culture, and the character of our society for years.

  No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending.

  But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. ,lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes.

  Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one,. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind.

  In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden winthin American society. More difficult, in the moment , is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this resession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer they extend.

  36.By saying “to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2)the author suggest that the jobless try to___.

  [A]seek subsidies from the govemment

  [B]explore reasons for the unermployment

  [C]make profits from the troubled economy

  [D]look on the bright side of the recession

  37. According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____.

  [A]realize the national dream

  [B]struggle against each other

  [C]challenge their lifestyle

  [D]reconsider their lifestyle

  38. Benjamin Friedman believe that economic recessions may_____.

  [A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants

  [B]bring out more evils of human nature

  [C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms

  [D]ease conflicts between races and classes

  39. The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from elite universities tend to _____.

  [A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities

  [B]catch up quickly with experienced employees

  [C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’

  [D]recover more quickly than the others

  40. The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____.

  [A]certain [B]positive

  [C]trivial [D]destructive

  Part B

  Directions: Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEERT 1.(10 points)

  “Universal history, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here,” wrote the Victorian sage Thomas Carlyle. Well, not any more it is not.

  Suddenly, Britain looks to have fallen out with its favourite historical form. This could be no more than a passing literary craze, but it also points to a broader truth about how we now approach the past: less concerned with learning from forefathers and more interested in feeling their pain. Today, we want empathy, not inspiration.

  From the earliest days of the Renaissance, the writing of history meant recounting the exemplary lives of great men. In 1337, Petrarch began work on his rambling writing De Viris Illustribus – On Famous Men, highlighting the virtus (or virtue) of classical heroes. Petrarch celebrated their greatness in conquering fortune and rising to the top. This was the biographical tradition which Niccolo Machiavelli turned on its head. In The Prince, the championed cunning, ruthlessness, and boldness, rather than virtue, mercy and justice, as the skills of successful leaders.

  Over time, the attributes of greatness shifted. The Romantics commemorated the leading painters and authors of their day, stressing the uniqueness of the artist's personal experience rather than public glory. By contrast, the Victorian author Samual Smiles wrote Self-Help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers , industrialists and explores . "The valuable examples which they furnish of the power of self-help, if patient purpose, resolute working and steadfast integrity, issuing in the formulation of truly noble and many character, exhibit," wrote Smiles." what it is in the power of each to accomplish for himself" His biographies of James Walt, Richard Arkwright and Josiah Wedgwood were held up as beacons to guide the working man through his difficult life.

  This was all a bit bourgeois for Thomas Carlyle, who focused his biographies on the truly heroic lives of Martin Luther, Oliver Cromwell and Napoleon Bonaparte. These epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate, but to be acknowledged as possessing higher authority than mere mortals.

  Communist Manifesto. For them, history did nothing, it possessed no immense wealth nor waged battles: “It is man, real, living man who does all that.” And history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle. As such, it needed to appreciate the economic realities, the social contexts and power relations in which each epoch stood. For: “Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past.”

  This was the tradition which revolutionized our appreciation of the past. In place of Thomas Carlyle, Britain nurtured Christopher Hill, EP Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. History from below stood alongside biographies of great men. Whole new realms of understanding — from gender to race to cultural studies — were opened up as scholars unpicked the multiplicity of lost societies. And it transformed public history too: downstairs became just as fascinating as upstairs.

  Section Ⅲ Translation

  46. Directions: Translate the following text from English into Chinese.Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET2.(15 points)

  When people in developing countries worry about migration,they are usually concerned at the prospect of ther best and brightest departure to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in the developed world ,These are the kind of workers that countries like Britian ,Canada and Australia try to attract by using immigration rules that privilege college graduates .

  Lots of studies have found that well-educated people from developing countries are particularly likely to emigrate .A big survey of Indian households in 2004 found that nearly 40%of emigrants had more than a high-school education,compared with around 3.3%of all Indians over the age of 25.This "brain drain "has long bothered policymakers in poor countries ,They fear that it hurts their economies ,depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities ,worked in their hospitals and come up with clever new products for their factories to make .

  Section Ⅳ Writing

  Part A

  47.Directions:

  Suppose you have found something wrong with the electronic dictionary that you bought from an onlin store the other day ,Write an email to the customer service center to

  1) make a complaint and

  2) demand a prompt solution

  You should write about 100words on ANSERE SHEET 2

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter ,Use "zhang wei "instead .

  Part B

  48. Directions:

  write an essay based on the following table .In your writing you should

  1) describe the table ,and

  2) give your comments

  You should write at least 150 words(15points)

  某公司员工工作满意度调查

  2012年考研英语二答案

  Section I USE of English

  1.【答案】B【解析】从空后的句子“他们解放的人们”可以看出,空前的句子表示的应该是参加了第二次大战的男人和女人。只有serve有“服兵役”的意思,所以选B。其他都不符合题意。

  2.【答案】B【解析】空内信息应该是与hero“英雄”意思相对,后面的分句说他背井离乡,经历了很多苦难,显然这里应该是说由普通人平凡人(common man)成长为英雄,所以选B。

  3.【答案】A【解析】本题考查的是词语的搭配关系,承担战争带来的负担,应该用动词bear或shoulder,所以这里选A,bore。

  4.【答案】A【解析】necessities表示“生活必需品”,空外信息food和shelter(食物和住宿)这些就是维持生存最起码的条件。Facilities是设备设施,commodities商品,properties财产,均不符合题意。

  5.【答案】C【解析】not…but,“不是,而是”表转折,不是自愿兵,也没有高的报酬,而是一个普通人。所以选C。

  6.【答案】D【解析】这道题主要考查介词的搭配。根据up______(the best trained, bestequipped, fiercest, most brutal).enemies可以知道是起来反抗敌人,所以选D选项against。

  7.【答案】C【解析】GI。在军事上是Government Issue 的缩略语,所以,GL。这个符号就是象征着这个全称Government Issue。选C。

  8.【答案】A【解析】该句意思为,GI。这个符号出现在给士兵分发的所有物品上,hand out “分发,发放”符合题意。Turn over “移交”,bring back“带回”,pass down“传承,一代一代传下来”在句意上都说不通。

  9.【答案】C【解析】空所在句子的语境为:Joe是个普通名词,一个从未爬到社会顶层的人的名字。Manage表示再怎么经过努力,最终也未获得成功,所以选C。

  10.【答案】B 【解析】结合第9题的分析可知,空所在句子实际上是进一步举例说明Joe没有取得大的成就:从来都不曾出现叫做Joe的总统、副总统、国务卿。根据句意只能选never,B。

  11.【答案】D 【解析】本题考察词汇辨析。空所在的语境为:GI .Joe有_ _ 的军旅生涯,曾和德国,美国以及韩国的军队作战。由此语境确定选D,其他几项均不符合题意。

  12.【答案】B 【解析】本题考察词汇辨析。空所在语境为:他身上体现着美国人的某些特色,或身上结合了美国人的诸多特性。结合语境,可知作者想表达在他身上有很多美国人的典型特色,因而选B。

  13.【答案】C 【解析】本题考察词汇辨析。空所在语境为:Pyle _ _ 的士兵也本色出演了该片。结合上句对Ernie Pyle的介绍,可知为一战地记者(warcorrespondent),确定答案C。

  14.【答案】D 【解析】本题考察词汇辨析。 空所在语境为:Pyle擅长报导战争的_ _面,报导这些浑身是尘土,积雪以及泥浆的士兵。Pyle报导重在士兵而非战争上,因而可确定他关注的应更多的是人性。所以选D。

  15.【答案】D 【解析】本题考察词汇辨析。本题承接上题, 表达: Pyle并不关注士兵行军多少里,或是占领或解放了多少地方。Gain有推进(一段)距离的意思,故选D。

  16.【答案】A 【解析】本题考察词汇辨析。空所在语境为:他的报导与Bill Maulden的是_____的。紧接的一句话揭示了本题的答案,两者都(Both men)。由此可确定两人的报导应是类似的。因而,选A。“counteracted”表示“抵制,中和,对抗 ”,duplicated表示“ 复制,重复”,“ contradicted”表示“反驳,与 ... 矛盾”。

  17.【答案】C 【解析】本题考察逻辑搭配。空所在语境为:两者都_ 战争的丑恶,以及所带来的损耗。”由上题可知道,Pyle更加注重战争中的士兵,因而他不可能是忽略(neglected),避免(avoided)或是钦佩(admired)战争所带来的这一些负面的东西,因而本题选C。

  18.【答案】B 【解析】本题由冒号后多表达的咖啡,香烟,威士忌,住的地方,还睡觉的地方,有好的觉可以睡与前面所说的前面dirt, exhaustion of war形成鲜明的对比。故选B

  19.【答案】B 【解析】本题考察介词的用法。空所在语境为:_ _ 印度,法国,以及其他国家,G.I. Joe可以是任何美国士兵。结合文章表达,应是对于这些人而言。因而,确定答案B。

  20.【答案】D【解析】本题考察逻辑搭配。空所在语境为:G.I. Joe是他们生命中最重要的人。原题四个选项分别表示on the contrary“ 正相反”; [B] by thismeans“用这种方式”;[C]fromthe outset“从一开始”;[D]atthat point表示“就那点(方面)来说”。D为最佳答案。

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  21.【答案】A【解析】文章首段首句指出“家庭作业一直不受学生,还有许多家长的欢迎,特别是到了最近几年,家庭作业还遭到了人们的不屑。”后面的内容则是简单提出美国各学区对于家庭作业的作为,引出L.A.Unified针对家庭作业所指定的政策。该题题干问的是“根据文章首段,目前家庭作业…”,关键词是家庭作业,因此答案从首句就能判断出来,题干的nowadays对应原文中的in recent years, 所选答案则是对“it has been particularly corned。”的同义改写,故答案选A。

  22.【答案】C【解析】文章第二段首句明确说到“这项政策的制定是为了解决贫困家庭的学生在完成家庭作业中可能遇到的困难。”这与题干所问“制定该政策的主要原因”以及“贫困学生”就对应起来了,故答案选C。

  23.【答案】A【解析】文章第三段第二句指出,“如果家庭作业仅占分值的10%,学生很容易少做一半的家庭作业,在他们的成绩单上也不会有什么差别。”“家庭作业仅占分值10%”这是L.A.Unified 制定出的家庭作业政策的内容,因此,从这句话可以看出有了这项政策,既然成绩单上不会有区别,学生就会选择少做一半的家庭作业,这个意思对应选项为A。

  24.【答案】B

  【解析】题干关键词“a key question unanswered ”对应第四段的首句“the policy addresses none of thetruly thorny questions about homework。”而这个问题的具体内容则是从“if”开始说明,因此这道题要解出正确答案,需要对后面的内容进行分析,“如果学区认为家庭作业对应学生的学业不重要,学区应致力于减少或者删除家庭作业,使家庭作业不起任何作用;相反,如果家庭作业重要,它应该在学业中占重要的一部分。”从这两句的内容中,我们可以简单归纳出,L.A.Unified所指定的这项政策到目前为止还未对家庭作业对于学生学业是否有重要作用给出确定答案,故答案选B。

  25.【答案】D

  【解析】这篇文章开篇指出家庭作业的弊病,随即提出美国各学区对此做出的努力,以L.A.Unified所指定的政策为例,说明这项政策在各方面的作为,如第三段末尾说“The policy imposes aflat, across-the-board rule”,第四段首句说“这项政策并未解决任何关于家庭作业的棘手问题”,看出作者对于这项政策实际是持否定态度的,因此答案B可以排除;而C选项说的是“关于家庭作业的棘手问题”,文章中虽然提到这个“棘手问题”,但并非主要阐述,最终落脚点还是在关于家庭作业的政策上面,因此C选项排除;A选项的错误在于“错误解读”,文章是对政策进行客观解读,错误的是政策本身,而非解读。D选项考生可能不选的原因在于对“approach”一词的内涵意义不够理解,approach一词本意是接近,靠近,方法,它引申出来就是策略的意思,与文章中的policy内涵一致,故答案D为正确选项。

  26.【答案】A

  【解析】题干的意思是“通过说‘粉色是彩虹中多么微小的一小部分’,作者的意思是 。根据文章第一段第三行,but作为连词表示后面的内容是对前面内容的否定,but之前的意思是说“粉色本身并不是不好”,而后买面的“such a tiny slice of”是指“是彩虹中多么微小的一部分”,由此可以得出,粉色并不代表女孩童年生活的全部。所以,选A。

  27.【答案】B

  【解析】题干是要根据文章第二段,判断哪个是对颜色理解正确的选项。根据文章第二段第一句话,前半部分是说“女孩对于粉色的关注看起来好像是不可避免的,不知怎么的,就跟存在与她们的基因里一样”,but之后是对前者的否定,所以很明显,A项是错误的。根据第二段的第7行,pink was actuallyconsidered the more masculine colour,可以得出,C选项错误。对于D选项,根据第二段第4、5行,可以得知,儿童穿白色是属于以前的情况,并非现在的事实,而D选项的时态是指一般现在时,时态不符合。根据文章8行,9行,可以得知,blue symbolisedfemininity,可以得知,蓝色曾经被认为是女孩子的颜色,符合文章题意。所以,选B。

  28.【答案】A

  【解析】题干“作者认为我们对于儿童心理发展的看法,多受____的影响。”从原文第三段的首句“我之前没有意识到,我们对孩子们所固有特性的认知深受市场趋势的支配,包括我们对他们心理发展的核心看法”,这一句可以明显看出相关儿童市场及其产品在左右人们对二年同心理发展的看法上所起的重要作用。而B、C、D均曲解了原文的意思,故本题正确答案为A

  29.【答案】C

  【解析】题干“从第4段我们可以看出,给出商店的建议是___” 选项A“关注婴儿和稍大一些的孩子的衣服”,回顾原文,第4段第1句话讲的是“为了增加销路,厂家应该开创在婴儿衣服和稍大一些的孩子衣服之前的一些商机”,而并没说是要“关注两者的衣服”,故A错误;B“把不同性别放在同等重要的地位”,此说法原文中并未提及,原文第4段只是在最后一句说道“分割市场最简便的方法之一就是来扩大性别之间的差异性”,故B错误;D“创造一些购买者的术语”,作者只是举出了一个“购买术语”的例子,但这不是作者的建议,真正是的建议是C,故C为正确答案。

  30.【答案】C

  【解析】题干“我们能推断出,女孩们对粉色的着迷看起来是___”文章最后两段都在探讨市场和厂家对人们看法和观念的诱导,因此C选项正合题意,其他选项都不正确。

  31.【答案】C

  【解析】文章首段首句提到“In2010, a federal judge shook America's biotech industry to its core。”,即2010年,联邦的一项决定震惊了美国的生物科技产业。 后面接着提到,这项决定是“genes wereunpatentable”,意思是与基因相关的项目不能够获得专利权,而“executives were violently agitated”,由agitated(愤怒的)可以推断出正确答案为C,即生物科技产业希望与基因相关的项目能够获得专利权。

  32.【答案】C

  【解析】文章第三段提到了反对基因相关的项目能够获得专利权的三个理由。第一个是,基因是自然的产品;第二个是,基因获得专利会压制创新;第三个是,基因专利的垄断会限制基因测试。故正确答案为C,即反对者们会认为与基因相关的专利应该更多的依赖于创新。答案A文中没有提及,答案D与反对者的第二个理由相一致,答案B属于过渡推断。

  33.【答案】A

  【解析】文章第五段中提到“Firms are now studying how genes interact, looking for correlations thatmight be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug's efficacy”,即各大公司目前正在研究基因之间的相互作用,寻找它们之间的相关性,从而通过这些相关性推断疾病产生的原因或预测药物的有效性。而Hans Sauer解释到各大公司渴望赢得专利权的原因是“connecting the dots”,这与上句话提到的“疾病之间的相互作用和相互联系”相呼应,故而选A。答案B属于偷换概念;答案C和D在文中没有提到。

  34.【答案】C

  【解析】文章最后一段提到了BIO最近要召开的一个会议。“Each meeting was packed”,这句话中的“packed”的原义为“打包,包装”,而在此句中的意思是:挤满,塞满。即会议挤满了人,从而反映了大家对基因专利的关注,故真确答案为C。答案A与题干无关;答案B属于主观臆断;答案D是干扰项,训练律师只是这次大会的一部分内容,以偏概全。

  35.【答案】D

  【解析】从整体上看,作者不仅提到了希望获得基因专利全的生物科技产业为此所作出的努力,同时也提到了反对者反对的理由,文章第四段进一步提到了基因获得专利过程中遇到的实际问题。故而,作者多基因专业的态度是客观的,即答案D。

  36.【答案】D

  【解析】题目定位在段首句。所以应该是整段意思的概括。第二句说,失业虽然很痛苦,但也从很多方面带来好处。冒号后面具体说他们从观念上,生活方式上发生了改变。所以选择D。A、B均为无关选项,C选项中说makeprofit,是侧重指获得经济利益,所以与原文不符。

  37.【答案】D

  【解析】第二句冒号后面:他们不再那么追求物质,经济上更节俭;同时意识到其他人在努力奋斗,即D选项中reconsidertheir lifestyle,重新审视他们的生活方式。A项有干扰性,但文中说“将我们从梦想中唤醒”,所以不对。B、C没有提到。

  38.【答案】B

  【解析】定位在第三段第二句开始。 接下来一句通过关键词mean-spiritedand less inclusive ,B选项正是该句的改写,故为正确答案;A属于过度推理;C、D意思明显弄反了

  39.【答案】D

  【解析】定位在第四段第三句冒号后面:高等学府的毕业生能够很快调整自身,达到未遭遇危机时的状态。D选项与之含义相符。C明显不对,“notall people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed”表明,不是所有的毕业生都认为前途渺茫。B项无中生有。A与原文相反。

  40.【答案】A

  【解析】由最后一句可知,“they certainly will reshape it”表示困难时期的一定会对社会产生影响的,所以certain与之相符。由最后一段无法看出是positive还是destructive,所以B、D均不正确。A项是“无足轻重的”,明显不对。

  41.【答案】A

  【解析】本题答案锁定在第三自然段,第二行讲到“Petrarchbegan...highlighting the virtue of classical heroes” 即彼特拉克在他的书中强调古典英雄的美德。答案A与此是完全对应的。

  42.【答案】D

  【解析】此题定位于第三自然段第五行,重点理解词组“turn on its head” ,意思为“to change sthcompletely”,所以说尼可洛,马基雅维利的观点与彼特拉克的观点是相反的,开启了了解历史伟人的新局面。

  43.【答案】G

  【解析】此题定位于第四自然段的第四行,“Self-help as acatalogue of the worthy lives of engineers, industrialists and explorers”, 塞缪尔·斯迈尔斯在他的书《成事在己》里面讲到了工程师,实业家,探险家的有意义的生活,G与此是对应的

  44.【答案】C

  【解析】此题定位于第五自然段第三行,“these epochal figuresrepresented lives hard to imitate”,托马斯,卡莱尔描述了一些穿越苦难的划时代的人物。C对应了此答案。

  45.【答案】E

  【解析】此题定位于第六自然段第五行,“history should be thestory of the masses and their record of struggle”,答案E与此句是完全对应的。

  46.【参考译文】

  发展中国家的人们为移民忧虑时,他们通常担忧的是离开自己国家去去硅谷或发达国家的医院和大学的最优秀、最聪明的群体的前景。这些劳动者正是像英国、加拿大、澳大利亚这样的国家通过赋予受过大学教育者以特权的移民法想要吸引的人群。

  很多研究发现,来自发展中国家的那些受到良好教育的人们极有可能选择移居他国。2004年对印度家庭开展了一项广泛的调查,结果显示约40%的移民受过高中以上的教育。相比而言,在所有年龄超过25岁的印度人中,受过高中以上教育的人数比例只有约3.3%。“人才流失”一直困扰着贫穷国家的政策制定者们。他们担心这会对本国的经济造成损害,造成国家急需的技工的流失。这些技术人员可能曾在他们的大学教学,也可能曾在他们的医院工作,或者曾经构想出智能化的新产品让他们的工厂去生产。

  【解析】今年翻译话题是贫穷国家的人才流失问题,话题内容比较好理解,从而在很大程度上降低了翻译的难度。但还是有几个地方有的同学可能会比较困惑。

  1)文章第一句的主句需要我们去认真思考下。“they are usually concerned at the prospect of their best and brightest departure to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in the developed world”

  这句话中concern at 的宾语是prospect。看到“of”我们要立即想到“A of B”翻译为“B的A”在这里,A指的就是“prospect”,关键就是找出B指代的是什么。而这一点恰恰是本句理解的难点B指的是 “their best and brightest”翻译为 “他们中最优秀、最聪明的(群体)”。

  2) 第一段第二句话关键在于对两个that引导的从句的理解。第一个that从句作定语修饰workers,第二个that作定语修饰rules。这里是考研英语中经常出现的一个考点:从句的嵌套。对于这样的句子我们的关键在于准确找到先行词,根据一个句子如果有N个连词就必定有N+1个动词的原则来切分开长句。

  3)“brain drain” 这个词组是在报刊杂志中经常出现的,意思是“人才流失”。这个词语通过上下文逻辑应该能大概猜出它的意思,但是在考研考场上,尤其是在完成了阅读和作文后很多同学可能已经耗费了大量的体力和脑力,对于这个单词的猜测可能会很费力,甚至会放弃。这个说明我们再平时的学习过程中应该注意积累这样的热点词汇。

  4)“They fear that it hurts their economies, depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who”

  对于这个句子的理解关键在于对于“depriving”之后成分在句子结构中作用的理解。Deprive本意是剥夺,在这里很显然不适合直译。我们根据逻辑关系可以翻译为“技工的流失”。“clever”这个单词很简单,同学们都认识,在这里翻译为“聪明的”很显然说不通,clever除了“聪明的”还有“精巧”之意,再结合这里说的是技术工人的重要性,我们可以翻译为“智能的”

  Section IV Writing

  47.小作文

  【参考范文】

  Dear Sir or Madam,

  I am writing this letter to make a complaint about the quality of the electronic dictionary I bought from your store the other day。

  The reason for my dissatisfaction is that I found the electronic dictionary can’t reach my satisfaction. In the first place, the outlook is quite different from what it is placed online. In addition, the number of the vocabulary contained in it is too small. I’d like to buy an electronic dictionary with a large vocabulary。

  I appreciate it very much if you could change another satisfying one for me. And I would like to have this matter settled by next Friday. Thank you for your consideration and I will be looking forward to your favorable reply。

  Yours sincerely,

  Zhang Wei

  48.大作文

  【参考范文】

  Here demonstrates a table with regard to the degree of satisfaction on work of staff in a company ranging from three different age groups, under 40, 40 to 50, and above 50 respectively. Specifically speaking, people in their forties are least satisfied with their present work situation at the rate of 64.0%. In comparison, people over 50 are most satisfied with their current situation at 40.0%. A noticeable figure is that half the staff under the age of 40 have no idea about their conditions。

  There prove to be a number of reasons accounting for it. First and foremost, it has something to do with the structure of staff’s age, especially with their working and life experience in which they play a pivotal role. What is more, this social issue is likely to be intertwined with the organization of the company where they serve。

  In line with my personal thinking, there are two major factors that should be taken into account seriously. On one hand, the general people concerned should enhance their awareness in this respect. What is more, the relevant company should increase the benefits for their employees. Only if these measures are adopted effectively can people work in peace and content and companies benefit most。

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